Periodontal surgery is a final option necessary for saving teeth from breaking and falling out due to extreme bacterial infection. It is performed to restore and regenerate normal function and form to severely damaged or lost periodontal structures (gums, bones, and ligaments).

Types

There are two types of periodontal surgical procedures:

Flap surgery

When periodontal pockets remain even after deep cleaning and medication, flap surgery is performed to remove the tartar deposits in the pockets. Flap surgery involves pulling back the gums and cleaning under them, after which the gums are sutured back to ensure they fit snugly against the teeth.

Bone and tissue grafts

In addition to flap surgery, regenerative procedures like bone or tissue grafts may be required to restore the tissue lost due to periodontal disease. Bone grafting involves applying natural or synthetic bone to the area that has suffered bone loss to promote growth. Guided tissue regeneration can be performed at the same time with a small mesh material placed between the bone and gum tissue to prevent gum growth.

Similarly, tissue grafting can be used to replace gum tissue lost due to infection. Either synthetic or natural tissue can be used.

Causes

When good oral hygiene is not practiced through regular cleaning and flossing, bacteria thrive and form plaque on the teeth. Over time, this hardens into tartar, which can cause gum inflammation called gingivitis. If left untreated, this can develop into periodontitis, a disorder in which the gums begin to pull away from the teeth, leading to further infection and breakdown of the bones and connective tissues holding the teeth in place.

 

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